Sophocles (c. 496 BCE - c. 406 BCE) was born to a wealthy family in the deme or suburb of Colonus outside the heart of Athens. Still, Oedipus worries about fulfilling the To the modern audience, Oedipus’ plight was used by Freud to describe his theory of the Oedipal Complex, the desire of boys and men to surpass … As he approaches the end of a lengthy prison sentence, Oedipus is ready to taste his long-awaited freedom. The Delphic Oracle tells him he is destined to mate with his mother and kill his father. He disbelieves the oracle, but news of his foster-father’s death confirms the truth. Agamemnon and Oedipus may be notable men, but they each share some of the same characteristic flaws that cause turmoil for the people they each rule over. However, the audience knows that the plague is a result of Oedipus’s actions and Oedipus may be the protagonist of the story, but Creon is its hero. オイディプース（古希: Οἰδίπους, Oidipūs, ラテン語: Oedipus）は、ギリシア神話の登場人物である。長母音を省略してオイディプス、あるいはエディプスとも表記される。テーバイの王ラーイオスとその妻イオカステーの間の子。名前は「膨れ上がった足」の意味。実の父を殺し、実の母と親子婚を行ったため、オイディプースの名は「エディプスコンプレックス」の語源になった。, ラーイオスは、子供を作るべきではないとの神託を受けた。もし子供を作れば、その子供がラーイオスを殺すというのである。しかしラーイオスは酔ったおりに妻イオカステーと交わり、男児をもうけた。神託を恐れたラーイオスは男児を殺そうと考えたが、殺すには忍びなく、男児の踵をブローチで刺し、従者に男児を渡してキタイローンの山中に置き去りにするよう命じた。, しかし従者もまた殺すには忍びないと考えたため、男児をキタイローンの山中にいた羊飼いに渡し、遠くへ連れ去るように頼んだ。, コリントス王ポリュボスとその妻メロペー（異説ではペリボイア、メドゥーサとも）には、子供が生まれなくて困っていたため、羊飼いは男児を二人に渡した。ブローチで刺された男児の踵が腫れていた為、ポリュボスとメロペーは男児をオイディプース（腫れた足）と名づけた。, 成長したオイディプースは他の者よりも能力が勝っていたため、これを嫉んだ者達が酒席で、オイディプースはポリュボスとメロペーの実子ではないと中傷した。疑いながらも不安に思ったオイディプースは、ポリュボスとメロペーを詰問したが、満足のいく回答が得られなかった。そこで神々に真実を聞こうと、デルポイでアポローンの神託を受けたが、アポローンは彼の問いに答えず、「故郷に近寄るな、両親を殺すであろうから」と教えた。, ポリュボスとメロペーとを実の両親と信じるオイディプースは、コリントスを離れて旅に出た。, 戦車に乗って旅をしている最中、ポーキスの三叉路に差し掛かったところで、戦車に乗った実の父ラーイオスが前方からあらわれた。ラーイオスの従者ポリュポンテースが、オイディプースに道を譲るよう命令し、これに従わぬのをみるや彼の馬を殺した。これに怒ったオイディプースは、ポリュポンテースとラーイオスを殺した。（殺害方法には、打ち殺したという説と谷底に突き落としたという説がある）ラーイオスが名乗らなかった為、オイディプースは自分が殺した相手が誰であるかを知らなかった。, プライタイアイ王ダマシストラトスがラーイオスを埋葬し、彼亡き後のテーバイは、メノイケオスの子クレオーンが摂政として治めた。, オイディプースはポーキスの三叉路から逃げてテーバイへと向かった。この頃テーバイは、ヘーラーにより送られたスピンクス（スフィンクス）という怪物に悩まされていた。, スピンクスはオルトロスを父とし、エキドナを母とする怪物で、女面にして胸と脚と尾は獅子、鳥の羽を持っていた。スピンクスはムーサより謎を教わって、ピーキオン山頂に座し、そこを通るものに謎を出して、謎が解けぬ者を喰らっていた。この謎は「一つの声をもちながら、朝には四つ足、昼には二本足、夜には三つ足で歩くものは何か。その生き物は全ての生き物の中で最も姿を変える」というものであった。, テーバイ人達は、「この謎が解かれた時スピンクスの災いから解放されるであろう」という神託を得ていた為、謎を解くべく知恵を絞ったが、誰も解く事は出来ず、多くの者がスピンクスに殺された（一説によるとクレオーンの子ハイモーンもまたスピンクスに殺された）。この為クレオーンは、「この謎を解いた者にテーバイの街とイオカステーを与える」という布告を出した。, 「答えは人間である。何となれば人間は幼年期には四つ足で歩き、青年期には二本足で歩き、老いては杖をついて三つ足で歩くからである」, 謎を解かれて面目を失ったスピンクスは、自ら城山より身を投じて死んだ（謎が解かれた場合は死ぬであろうという予言があったためとする話もある）。また、このスピンクスの問いの答えは「オイディプース」であるという穿った異説もある（後述）。, スピンクスを倒したオイディプースはテーバイの王となった。そして実の母であるイオカステーを、そうとは知らずに娶り、二人の男児と二人の女児をもうけた。男児はそれぞれエテオクレースとポリュネイケースといい、女児はアンティゴネーとイスメーネー（英語版）という。, オイディプースがテーバイの王になって以来不作と疫病が続いた。クレオーンがデルポイに神託を求めた所、「不作と疫病はラーイオス殺害の穢れの為であるので、殺害者を捕らえテーバイから追放せよ」という神託を得た。, オイディプースはそこで過去に遡って調べを進めるが、次第にそのあらましが、自分がこの地に来たときのポーキスの三叉路でのいざこざに似ていることに気が付く。さらに調べを進めるうち、やはりそれが自分であること、しかも自分がラーイオス王の子であったこと、母との間に子をもうけたこと、つまりは以前の神託を実現してしまったことを知る。それを知るやイオカステーは自殺し、オイディプースは絶望して自らの目をえぐり、追放された（娘と共に放浪の旅に出て行ったという説もある）。, 古い形の伝説では、オイディプースは自分の母を妻にしている事を知った後でも、そのまま王であり続けている。, また一つの解釈として、スピンクスの謎かけの答えは「オイディプース」であるとも言われる。それは、初めは立派な人間（＝二つ足）であったが、母と交わるという獣の行いを犯し（＝四つ足）、最後は盲目となって杖をついて（＝三つ足）国を出て行く、と言うオイディプースの数奇な運命を表すものである（この解釈では朝・昼・夜という時系列は、青年期・壮年期・老年期となる）。この解釈は蜷川幸雄演出の『オイディプス王』（2002年、野村萬斎主演）でも演じられた。, 娘と共に諸国をさすらったオイディプースは、その後アテーナイに辿り着いた。アテーナイ王テーセウスはオイディプースを手厚く庇護し、コローノスの森でオイディプースが最期を迎えることを認める。テーセウスに見守られ、ようやく安息の地を得たオイディプースは、地中へ姿を消した（『コロノスのオイディプス』）。, オイディプースとイオカステは二人の息子（エテオクレース、ポリュネイケース）と二人の娘（アンティゴネー、イスメーネー）を残した。二人の男児は長じてから、テーバイの王位継承をめぐって争いを起こす。その結果、テーバイを追放されたポリュネイケースは、七人の将でテーバイを攻めるが（『テーバイ攻めの七将』）、失敗に終わる。戦争中にオイディプースの息子達は相打ちになって死亡する。, 一方、オイディプースの二人の娘はオイディプースとともに諸国を放浪した（『コロノスのオイディプス』）が、オイディプースが死ぬとテーバイへと帰る。その後、二人の息子による前述の戦争が起こり、テーバイを裏切った兄ポリュネイケースの遺体は埋葬を許されず、野ざらしになっていたため、しかしアンティゴネーは兄の骸に砂をかけ、埋葬の代わりとした。このことで彼女は死刑を宣告され、牢で自害した（『アンティゴネー』）。, 戦争から10年後、七将の息子たち（エピゴノイ）は父親の志を継ぐべくテーバイへの再攻撃を企て、テーバイを陥落させた。途中、エテオクレースの子ラーオダマースは戦死する。, 一方、ポリュネイケースの子テルサンドロスは、テーバイでの戦争に勝利した後、トロイア戦争に参加したが、ギリシア軍は間違ってミューシアに上陸し、テーレポス王と戦争になった。ギリシア軍はテーレポスによって敗走させられ、テルサンドロスは最後まで戦ったが、テーレポスに討たれた。, ドミニク・アングルによる『スフィンクスの謎を解くオイディプス』1808年 ルーヴル美術館所蔵, ギュスターヴ・モローによる『オイディプスとスフィンクス』1864年 メトロポリタン美術館所蔵, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=オイディプース&oldid=79947339, この項目では、ギリシャ神話の登場人物オイディプースについて説明しています。この人物を主人公とした. Oedipus was born to King Laius (pronounced LAY-uhs) and Queen Jocasta (pronounced joh-KAS-tuh) of Thebes (pronounce… Teiresias names Oedipus as the pollution, and hints at ongoing crimes; Oedipus does not believe him, and The protagonist of Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus. Oedipus. Jocasta rejoices — surely this is proof that the prophecy Oedipus heard is worthless. This little known plugin reveals the answer. According to Greek mythology, when Oedipus was born, an oracle prophesied that Oedipus would ultimately destroy his father and marry his mother. Oedipus true identity is starting to become question, when he is … Considered a pariah because of his sins, Oedipus suffers abuse and rejection everywhere he goes. Thebes is … In what way does Oedipus typify the protagonist of a tragedy? Analysis of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex By Nasrullah Mambrol on July 27, 2020 • ( 0). A Shepherd of King Laïus. Oedipus begins life born to a man who first tortures and mutilates him and then tries to have him murdered. Oedipus laments the fact that they will never find husbands with such a cursed lineage and begs Creon to take care of them. She is especially passionate about reading and writing, although her other interests include The son of Laius and Jocasta, King and Queen of Thebes, Oedipus is the unfortunate main protagonist of one of the best-known of all legends in Ancient Greek or any other mythology. However, when the truth is revealed about Jocasta, and Oedipus requests to be exiled, it is Creon who grants his wish and takes the throne in his stead. “Oedipus the King” (Gr: “Oidipous Tyrannos”; Lat: “Oedipus Rex”) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, first performed in about 429 BCE. Creon figures prominently in the plays Oedipus Rex and Antigone, written by Sophocles.. Oedipus Rex. As a young man, Oedipus seeks out the oracle at Delphi and hears the wretched truth about himself. Oedipus. Oedipus is the well-known Greek mythic figure who was doomed to kill his father and marry his mother. When first reading the play, Oedipus is hailed as the hero for solving the Sphinx’s riddle and he is crowned the new king of Thebes. Once he had set foot on that path, his best qualities could not save him from the results of actions that violated the laws of gods and men. When he was in his eighties, he was named a member of the group of special magistrates assigned to the dubious task of organizing both financial and domestic recovery in 412-… Creon has been told by the oracle that only Oedipus's return can bring an end to the civil strife in Thebes—Oedipus's two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, are at war over the throne. For everyone’s surprise, Tiresias told the truth: Oedipus himself was the murderer and the curse. Soon he learns that it was he that put his kingdom at such terrible risk, and blinds himself using a brooch. His story is the tale of someone who, because he did not know his true identity, followed the wrong path in life. Oedipus is presented with a series of choices throughout the play, and his arrogant and stubborn nature push him to impulsively make the wrong decisions, the decisions that ultimately lead him to his downfall. d. The Theban elders already know who the murderer is. Creon, a Prince of Thebes, brother to Jocasta. Free Oedipus the King Essays: Missing Fathers Instead, many now lead toward the explanation that children may specifically identify with one parent at a time. Often in myth, the meeting of Laius and Oedipus is described as taking place where three roads meet. Oedipus is the well-known Greek mythic figure who was doomed to kill his father and marry his mother. a. gods b. man He arrives at the kingdom in Thebes, which is protected by the curse of the Sphinx. They argue and he kills Laius. ).Specifically, Theban King Creon is the brother of Theban Queen Jocasta, Oedipus' wife and mother. Das Orakel s… In Oedipus Rex, he begins the play at a high point as the benevolent and beloved King of Thebes. Oedipus goes out a-wanderin' and comes upon a place where three roads meet. Oedipus then proceeds to Thebes and soon marries his mother Jocasta. Oedipus Thanks to psychoanalysist Sigmund Freud, the story of Oedipus has become one of the most widely known in the modern world. The place of the Oedipus Tyrannus in literature is something like that of the Mona Lisa in art. The curse of the kingdom is overthrown and Oedipus’s reward is to have the kingship and the hand of the queen Jocasta, his biological mother. Oedipus finds out from a messenger that Polybus, king of Corinth, Oedipus' father, has died of old age. When the truth was revealed, he put out his eyes and Jocasta killed herself Tragic drama that is centered on the dilemma of a single central character largely begins with Sophocles and is exemplified by his Oedipus, arguably the most influential play ever written. He is renowned for his intelligence and his ability to solve riddles—he saved the city of Thebes and was made its king by solving the riddle of the Sphinx, the supernatural being that had held the city captive. contributor for many years. Oedipus is the king of Thebes, married to Jocasta. Oedipus becomes enraged with Teiresias’ news that he is “the land’s pollution” (25) and “the murderer of the king” (26). Antigone, in the Oedipus at Colonus, will become her father's guide. Creon is offended and alarmed when Oedipus accuses him… read analysis Everyone knows the story, the first detective story of Western literature; everyone who has read or seen it is drawn into its enigmas and moral dilemmas. Oedipus may be the protagonist of the story, but Creon is its hero. A helpless infant who survives such a difficult start immediately grabs the audience’s attention. Oedipus is a man of constant action. The story is a sad one, which reiterates the Grecian concept that fate is inescapable. Tiresias, an old blind seer. The second requirement is a … Oedipus the King unfolds as a murder mystery, a political thriller, and a psychological whodunit. An example of the Oedipus behavior is a forty year old man who's never moved away from his mother and doesn't leave … Oedipus is all like, "No way, you get out the way." At the opening of Oedipus the King, we see that these qualities make him an excellent ruler who anticipates his subjects’ needs. Learn about a little known plugin that tells you if you're getting the best price on Amazon. When the priests come to ask for his help, he has already dispatched Creon to the oracle to find out what the gods suggest. A tragic hero in Greek mythology, Oedipus accidentally fulfilled a prophecy that he would end up killing his father and marrying his mother, thereby bringing disaster to his city and family. A shepherd pities Oedipus and he is ultimately adopted by the childless King and Queen of Corinth. medicine, art, film, history, politics, ethics, and religion. Oedipus Former king of Thebes, now a blind beggar who wanders from place to place. A few dudes roll up to the crossroads and tell Oedipus to get out of the way. Oedipus Rex Study Guide Questions Lit Terms – Feel free to add others as we read. Thus he heads to Thebes and encounters his birth father on the way. Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Ancient Greek: Ο?δίπους Τύραννος, pronounced [oidípoːs týrannos]), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 It is a fatalist concept repeated in many Grecian myths, and was perhaps a way to account for tragic occurrences that could not readily be explained in the everyday life of the Ancient Greek. Oedipus reacts to the news of a plague in Thebes by searching for answers. Oedipus is responsible for his own downfall because of his ability to solve riddles. By his noble birth and courage, he is portrayed as one who deserves the audience’s pity. While Oedipus and those around him consider "fate" the source of Oedipus' problems, Oedipus' decisions show the audience that it is he who is responsible. Oedipus Rex Summary O edipus Rex is a Greek tragedy that tells the story of King Oedipus of Thebes, who is fated to kill his father and marry his mother. He has no idea that this was his father. Both are driven by their surety that they have outwitted fate, an example of hubris. It was the second of Sophocles‘ three Theban plays to be produced, but it comes first in the internal chronology (followed by “Oedipus at Colonus” and then “Antigone”). Ismene and Antigone are Oedipus's young daughters who are led out at the end of the play. Left, while still a baby, to die in the mountains by his father who had been warned that his son would kill him and marry his wife Oedipus was eventually adopted by the childless King Polybus and Queen Merope of Corinth. What it 's a Freudian concept ; that is, one developed by famous psychoanalyst Freud. Add others as we read reacts to the news of his foster-father ’ s prophecy his noble and. Money that Actually work oracle ’ s best interests at heart at the end of the play a... Never find husbands with such a cursed lineage and begs Creon to care... 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